Environmental Issues in Urban Systems Research Paper

The Sustainability Multiplier
The whole question of human existence puts into the picture the overall demand for resources that are found within the ecosystems. The has often been used to refer to the measure of this demand (Alcamo et al.). One factor that we may want to underline is that the question of mans demand and use of natural resources can be addressed about the ability of nature to produce these resources as well as natures ability to regenerate those that it has the ability to Debate has been there as to the contribution of such factors as the concentration of buildings to the ecosystem.

Research has shown that this concentration is helping to reduce the load on the surface of the earth in various ways, and more specifically it is helping in the sustainability aspect of the resources on the earths surface. The concentration of people in small areas has seen the reduction of the land needed for settlement, which translates to a reduction of demand for construction material further reducing pressure on mines and minerals.

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City residents also come together to put up houses through various schemes. People have adapted to methods of acquiring housing, such as group loans that see houses built in concentration around a section of land. The surroundings that emerge are so well concentrated that a large number of people can share facilities such as means of transport at one time. This means that the number of automobiles used reduces and as well the need for fossils from which fuel is extracted.

Cities and urban centers, in general, have recorded improved infrastructure in telecommunication, transport, and generally all public facilities. In most cases, people can access all these facilities within a very limited area in kilometer coverage, which means that there is reduced traveling and reduced construction, thus further relieving the load for the ecosystem. People are also popularizing engaging in activities such as skiing and cycling, which were unheard of in the past.

Another notable contributor is the ability of industries to make their production of various commodities in a manner that the waste from these productions become raw materials for others. This kind of production is commonly regarded as the application of the principles of low throughput industrial ecology. This interdependence should be encouraged to reduce the number of emissions to the environment.

Economic Processes Driving Change
Several factors contribute to the change of the urban ecosystem, and general development and their impacts may be felt either directly or indirectly. Dependence on fossil fuels is one of these drivers. Reliability on petroleum fuels almost drives all other aspects of urban economy Studies have revealed that the uptake of fuel products for transportation within and around the urban centers accounts for about 75% of the total consumptions in these cities regardless of the size of the city and in recent times, middle-income cities have been found to increase this consumption.

The inter-connectivity of different parts of the world through technological advancements is another driver. This has seen faster production of goods and services while there has been a significant reduction in the number of materials used to make some gadgets. For example, there is no longer a need for huge metal bars that are used in making telephone booths. This means that there is reduced pressure on iron ore, which is a positive relieve to the ecosystem.

It must be noted though that globalization differs greatly in different parts of the world. In African and Latin American cities, and over-reliance on agricultural products have denied these cities the fast rate of growth seen in industrialized nations, especially for their dependence on food production. This has seen a change in food intake patterns which also contribute to the so common inflation rates in these countries and they are never shielded from the effects of recession even when it happens on a small scale globally.

Another driver of development in these cities is the upholding of culture, traditions, and laws, which make them more prone to the effects of calamities like earthquakes and floods. Slums and also thrive in these cities as a result of to by-laws and cultures (Alvheim).

Drivers of change in the developed world or high-income cities have been characterized by such indicators, such as reduced birth rates and a shift from industrial production mechanisms to service provision and finance market.

The effect of emission of gases from fuel-driven automobiles and the imminent threat of global warming is also dominant in these countries forcing policymakers and stakeholders to advocate for safer fuels to reduce the danger and in the process affecting the way people live in these cities. Such concern has seen improvement especially in the vehicle industry where people continue to make vehicles that run on alternative sources of energy.

In addressing the challenges facing development in urban areas, scientific research and technological advances have been largely used in areas like medicine and waste management.

Essential Steps in the Processes of Natural Succession in Urban Areas
For there to be the improvement of the ecosystem in urban areas, there must be deliberate efforts towards this cause, and some crucial steps must be taken. Cities must be keen on into the urban ecosystem. This means such processes like planting trees and flowerers in and around the city must be prioritized if there has to be a significant contribution to the existing natural environment.

Organic matter and minerals must also be protected and sufficiently added to the ecosystem where possible to enhance the survival of important microorganisms. Activities that affect organisms that are dependent on the soil should be limited. Recycling processes should also be advocated for as well as reducing competition among organisms. This should also see the introduction of organisms that may bring about hybrid products through positive interaction. Cities must also not limit their ability to produces alternative sources of fuel (Ettema et al.)

Responding To Environmental and Ecological Burden in Urban Systems
Mans inability to understand fairly enough how ecological changes affect their whole system of living is one big challenge. Also, the private sector has not delved enough into ecosystem management, leaving the bulk of work to governments and thus lack effective partnerships to ease the burden. Further, the people most affected by ecological challenges have little or no political influences and even economic power to contribute to the decision-making process of ecological debate. There is also the problem of the ever-increasing slums with poor sanitation and water services

Nevertheless, technological advances that enable industries to reuse waste materials for their production are some of the breakthroughs to easing the ecological burden. The challenge now is to maintain such programs since, as demonstrated by the sanitary reform agenda, it is easier to create projects but quite difficult to sustain them productively.


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