Essay paper on issue of workplace violence

The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) defines workplace violence as violent acts directed toward persons at work or on duty. Workplace violence is any physical assault, threatening behavior, or verbal abuse occurring in the work setting. A work setting is defined as any location, either permanent or temporary, where an employee performs work-related duties. This comprises, but is not limited to, the buildings and surrounding perimeters, including the parking lots, field locations, clients homes, and traveling to and from work assignments. (Anderson, D. 2008).

Workplace violence ranges mostly, from unpleasant or threatening language to homicide. Elements of workplace violence includes beatings, stabbings, suicides, shootings, rapes, psychological traumas, threats or obscene phone calls, fear, irritation of any kind, as well as being confirmed at, shouted at, or followed. Nurses are at the most risk of workplace violence among health care providers .Violence inflicted on employees may come from many sources external parties such as robbers or muggers and internal parties such as coworkers and patients.( Boldt, A., & Schmidt, R. 2006) There are many risk factor of work violence which affecting in nursing in this essay will discuss type of violence and how to prevent the violence in work place.

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The reasons for workplace violence and stress are identified at organizational, societal and individual levels, showing complex interrelationships. The accumulation of stress and tension in demanding health occupations under strain from societal problems and the pressure of health system reforms contribute to emerging violence. At an individual level, health workers tend to rank the personality of patients as the leading factor generating violence, followed by the social and economic situation in the country and, well behind, work organization and working conditions. (Duxbury, J. 2009). However, when categorized into individual, societal and organizational factors, all three contributing factors appear to be of equal importance in the analysis of risks of violence and stress, with organizational factors playing a key role.

Examples of violence in the workplace include the following: Verbal threats to , including vague or covert threats Attempting to cause physical harm: striking, pushing and other aggressive physical acts against another person Disorderly conduct, such as shouting, throwing or pushing objects, punching walls, and slamming doors Verbal harassment; abusive or offensive language, gestures or other discourteous conduct towards supervisors or fellow employees Making false, malicious or unfounded statements against coworkers, supervisors, or subordinates which tend to damage their reputations or undermine their authority (Contrera- L., & Moreno, M. 2004).

Type of violence affecting in nursing

Nursing to nursing which nurse are often the first line of victims. This act of violence can include spousal abuse and child and elderly abuse. Other to nurse which violence toward health care professional is extensive, and nurse are frequency the victims. The perpetrators can include patient. Patient families and other health care worker. Nurse to nurse who is difficult for nurses to discuss violence against other nurse.horizantal aggression is define as aggressive behavior that one against another in the work place.( Duxbury, J. 2009). The aggressive behavior may be verbal. Non verbal or physical. It may be expressed directly toward another person or indirectly toward their property or work. The behavior can be expressed openly or in more subtle manner. Other type is nurse to other: violence includes patient abuse and neglect with nurse as aggressor.


Workplace violence has many sources. To better understand its causes and possible solutions, researchers have divided it into four categories dependent upon the type of perpetrator like person committing the violence. The four types are: violence by strangers, violence by customers or clients, violence by co-workers, and violence by someone in a personal relationship( Felblinger, D. 2008).

Type I:Violence by a Stranger: In this type of workplace violence the perpetrator is a stranger and has no legitimate relationship to the organization or its employees. Typically, a crime is being committed in conjunction with the violence. The primary motive is usually robbery but it could also be shoplifting or criminal trespassing. A deadly weapon is often involved, increasing the risk of fatal injury.

Type I is the most common source of worker homicide. Eighty-five percent of all workplace homicides fall into this category

Workers who are at higher risk for Type I violence are those who exchange cash with customers as part of the job, work late night hours, and/or work alone. Convenience store clerks, taxi drivers, and security guards are all examples of the kinds of workers who are at increased risk for Type I workplace violence.( Gates, D., Fitzwater, E.etal. 2004)

Type II:Violence by a Customer or Client: In Type II incidents, the perpetrator has a legitimate relationship with the organization by being the recipient or object of services provided by the workplace or the victim. This category includes customers, clients, patients, students, and inmates. The violence can be committed in the workplace or, as with service providers; outside the workplace but while the worker is performing a . (Hughes, H. 2008).

Violence of this kind is divided into two categories. One category involves people who may be inherently violent, such as prison inmates, , or other client populations. Attacks from unwilling clients, such as prison inmates on guards or crime suspects on police officers, are examples of this type of workplace violence. The risk of violence to some workers in this category may be constant or even routine.

The other category involves people who are not known to be inherently violent, but are situation ally violent. Something in the situation induces an otherwise nonviolent client or customer to become violent. Provoking situations may be those that are frustrating to the client or customer, such as denial of needed or desired services or delays in receiving such services. (Hegney, D., Tuckett, A., Parker, D., & Eley, R. 2010).

Service providers, including healthcare workers, schoolteachers, social workers, and bus and train operators, are among the most common targets of type II violence. A large proportion of customer/client incidents occur in the healthcare industry, in settings such as nursing homes, hospitals, or psychiatric facilities. (Woodtli, M., & Breslin, E. 2006).

Type III: Violence by a Co-Worker, Type III violence occurs when an employee or past employee attacks or threatens co-workers. This category includes violence by employees, supervisors, managers, and owners. In some cases, these incidents can take place after a series of increasingly hostile behaviors from the perpetrator. The motivating factor is often one, or a series of, interpersonal or . The perpetrator may be seeking revenge for what is perceived as unfair treatment. (Hughes, H. 2008).

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