Giger and Davidhizar Transcultural Assessment Model

Transcultural nursing is essential for nurses because it introduces nurses to cultural aspects of the society and how they can be applied to healthcare practices (Davidhizar, Bechtel & Giger, 1998). Various models have been proposed to acquaint nurses with the necessary knowledge and approaches to transcultural nursing (Giger, Davidhizar, & Fordham, 2005). I have chosen to discuss the Giger and Davidhizar Transcultural Assessment Model.

The Giger and Davidhizar Transcultural Assessment Model was formulated to help nurses deal with individuals seeking healthcare and their relatives with diverse cultural characteristics (Giger et al., 2005). The model recognizes each person as a unique individual with different cultural values, customs and norms. The model varies from the other transcultural nursing models in six domains it uses to assess individuals seeking healthcare.

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The model adopts a communication domain in assessing individuals receiving healthcare or their relatives. Communication allows members of a society to share information, ideas and feelings. With communication, members of different cultural origins have been able to share their cultures using both verbal and nonverbal ways of exchanging information and ideas (Giger & Davidhizar, 2002).

Space is another domain that the Giger and Davidhizar Transcultural Assessment Model uses to assess individuals. This aspect defines the closeness techniques used when interacting verbally or nonverbally. Space may be termed as being personal or intimate (Giger & Davidhizar, 2002). For example, a sick person may express her feelings to a nurse on duty while touching his or her hands, to show friendliness. This is personal space.

Social organization component is encompassed in the model, and it recognizes the family as the fundamental social group. Families recognize the role of both parents in providing healthcare (Giger & Davidhizar, 2002).

Time is an essential component of the Giger and Davidhizar Transcultural Assessment Model. Nurses can understand the orientation of patients based on how they view issues in life (Giger & Davidhizar, 2002).

The Giger and Davidhizar Transcultural Assessment Model emphasizes the importance of environmental control in the healthcare outcomes. Persons seeking healthcare may feel that they do not have any control over their conditions. On the other hand, they may also feel that they have control over their condition, and they do not need external forces to influence their healing (Giger & Davidhizar, 2002).

Biological variations have been encompassed in the Giger and Davidhizar Transcultural Assessment Model to show that members of a society differ superficially, but there exist genetic differences that lead to most of these variations (Giger & Davidhizar, 2002). For example, members of a society may have different resistance to diseases. Individualized healthcare nursing helps understand biological variations responsible for various disease manifestation and progression.

Why I am choosing this model
I am choosing this model because it is simple to understand and apply it in both ambulatory and inpatient settings (Davidhizar et al., 1998). The broad applicability of the model enables nurses understand various aspects that may influence patients health improvements. The six components of the model are applied in detail by nurses to provide quality healthcare to persons seeking healthcare.

Strengths and limitations of the model
The Giger and Davidhizar Transcultural Assessment Model has its greatest advantage in its applicability in both nursing and specialist cases. The other advantages are in the components of the model. The model attempts to understand the cultural aspects of individuals holistically. It achieves this by analyzing communication and social organizations among individuals. The model also recognizes the impact of other factors like biological variation and environmental control on the outcome of healthcare services.

The model also has disadvantages. It does not exhaust on the number of components that are explained by other transcultural models. The model does not address the component of food, yet food is regarded as an essential component in the healing process. The model does not also yet most cultures have .

Applications of three components of the model
Communication: In the Asian tradition heritage, a mother of a sick child may use different words to describe the condition of her child. She may also use various tones when of the suffering her child is undergoing.
Social organization: In the Asian tradition heritage, the father of a sick child provides financial resources while the mother provides healthcare support to the child in inpatient settings.
Environmental control: In the Asian tradition heritage, most individuals seeking healthcare in hospitals believe that there are external forces determining their health status. Thus, they believe they cannot do much to improve their health conditions on their own.
Evaluations and recommendations
The Giger and Davidhizar Transcultural Assessment Model has broad applications in the healthcare settings, and the knowledge gained from assessments enables healthcare professionals offer culturally-based care (Giger et al., 2005). The and other a persons beliefs, values and attitudes. However, the domains encompassed in the model are not exhaustive. The model needs to increase the number of domains that will holistically address cultural issues among the individuals seeking healthcare. For example, food and gender-based domains are necessary when addressing healthcare matters among individuals in different cultural settings.


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