Hybrid energy system made of solar and wind sources of energy
This report focuses on the possibility of setting up a hybrid energy system made of solar and wind sources of energy to supply Australia and New Zealand. The report identifies Darwin, Australia as the most suitable location for the hybrid system.
The rationale behind settling for Darwin include the fact that the region has favourable weather conditions for the system; a long, dry and sunny season, as well as suitable wind speeds for wind energy production. The residents are also likely to support the project since the project will help them lower their cost of living and provide employment opportunities.
Both Australia and New Zealand will experience economic boost on supplementing their fossil fuelled source of energy with the hybrid system. This project will be implemented parallel to the existing method and in phases to ensure continuous supply of energy. Costs will be incurred in purchasing solar panels, wind turbines, and labour among other expenditures.
Global warming has been one of the issues that have caused a lot of concern across the world (Andrew, 2011). Scientists have continued to emphasize that the major cause of global warming is the increasing amount of greenhouse gases. The increase in the greenhouse gases is as a result of human activities that result in emission of carbon dioxide, which is believed to be the most common greenhouse gas (Thiam, 2012).
Fossil fuel is the major source of energy used by most companies (Archer, 2012). There have been appeals for the use of energy sources that are environmentally friendly to avoid the effects caused by burning fossil fuels.
Renewable energy is the type of energy that is usually refilled or replenished as time goes by. These include energy sources from wind, tides, sun, geothermal heat, waves, as well as rain (Srensen, 2011). These are sources that do not emit any greenhouse gas since they are natural. These sources of energy can be effective in reducing the effects of environmental pollution across the globe.
At the moment, it is approximated that only about 16% of energy consumed across the world originates from renewable energy sources. Only 10% of the global energy comes from biomass, while hydro electricity is said to generate 3.4% of the global energy only (Maczulak, 2010).
In Australia and New Zealand, there have been debates on how clean sources of energy that do not emit greenhouse gases can be adopted. The governments of Australia and New Zealand have put more emphasis on the implementation of new technologies that can be adopted to generate clean energy.
The purpose of this report is to give an investigative analysis of three locations in Australia and New Zealand where hybrid renewable systems that comprise of technological innovation can be successfully installed.
The report will focus on the environmental, social, legal, and economic factors that influenced the choice of the locations. The report will then focus on availability of resources, such as technology and finances, in the locations.
It is important to consider a number of factors in selecting a location where a hybrid renewable system can be installed. Location selection is a very critical exercise since it holds the key to success or failure of the entire project (Lund, 2010). The project is expected to be located in Darwin, Australia.
This is an area located in the Timor Sea. It is the capital city of the Northern Territory, Australia and is one of the two cities in Northern Territory that are highly populated. Of the Australian capital cities, Darwin, Australia is the smallest and is located in the north-most part of the country.
It is important to note that this city is the Top Ends regional centre of Australia (Forrest, 2001). The following is the analysis of the factors to be considered.
The region is occupied by people who have various ethnic origins. It has a youthful population whose average age is approximated to be about 33 years. Most people in this region belong to the working class.
This is one of the reasons why most people are youthful since most people opt to retire in other regions. The region is rich in parks and gardens. Examples include George Brown Darwin Botanic Gardens, Charles Darwin National Park, and Casuarina Coastal Reserve among others. There are beaches, such as the Mindil Beach, for recreation.
Environmental factors include consideration of the weather, as well as the climate that prevails in the area. Darwin is an area whose climate is generally tropical savannah. This is the type of climate that falls in the category of Koppen climate classifications. It is dominated by dry and wet seasons. It is important to note that the temperature in a tropical savannah climate is usually above 18 degrees Celsius.
The type of tropical savannah in Darwin is one that has long dry season compared to the wet season. The dry period is usually between the months of May and September, during which there is very little or no rain. This type of climate could be very effective for the purpose of this project.
One factor that could make the area strategic for the project is the fact that statistics indicate that more electricity is usually consumed during the summer when most air conditioners are switched on. This coincides with the dry season at Darwin.
This means that solar energy would be in plenty supply during these periods since the days are very sunny at Darwin during the summer. There are some dry days when the weather is usually warm or hot during the wet seasons (World Weather and Climate Information, 2013).
Not much electricity is consumed considering the fact that this season follows after the summer. Consequently, the weather can support solar energy during this period. Darwin is said to be the hottest and warmest city in Australia, with an average 8.4 sunny hours per day throughout the year. In addition, this area can be the best for a hybrid renewable system since it is usually windy.
The wind can be combined with solar to generate a hybrid source of energy. For instance, the wind speed averages between 0m/s to 7m/s during the month of October when there is no much sunshine. The highest speed of wind is in the average of 7m/s in a day, while the lowest average wind speed is in the average of .
It is possible to combine wind and solar to make a hybrid renewable system (World Weather and Climate Information, 2013). This will be a source of energy that will help in conserving the environment.
It will also be effective in reducing the rising cost of living as a result of high prices of petrol. The graph below shows the average speed of wind in Darwin per month throughout the year (World Weather and Climate Information, 2013).
Solar panels and the wind turbines can be integrated to form a hybrid renewable system. The sunlight that is in the region throughout the year has the ability to satisfy big solar panels that can generate sufficient electricity. In addition, the wind can also turn wind turbines that can generate sufficient electricity to complement the solar energy in times of low sun, or in the wet seasons (. 2012).
In Darwin, Australia, the cost of living is said to have gone up due to the escalating prices of petrol and other sources of energy in use. In addition, the increasing global warming has had a negative effect on the lives of people in the country. The increase in earth temperatures has effects on plantations.
This leads to an increase in the cost of living for most citizens. These are some of the social factors that might influence the development of a hybrid energy system in the area (Mukherjee & Chakrabarti, 2004).
The commitment of the people in the area is an important factor. It will be difficult to develop the project if the citizens are not committed to the project because they will not offer support in the event that they are called upon. Peoples participation and support are vital factors to the success of the project.
It is expected that people will support the project considering that this project will save them the escalating cost of living resulting from high prices of other sources of energy. In addition, people are also likely to participate and support this new development given this project will be environmentally friendly in that it will reduce emissions of greenhouse gases that lead to global warming.
The support of the people will provide a favourable environment for the development of a hybrid renewable system in Darwin, Australia. It is expected that the hybrid energy system will help in reduction of the long wait for grid extension that people usually have to do. Connections will be done as the project continues, thus people will be in full support of the project (Antonio, 2009).
Another social factor that should be considered is the availability of the local workforce. The city of Darwin is one that is said to be highly populated compared to other cities in the Northern Territory, Australia. Consequently, there is likely to be enough people to provide support in the labour requirements for the project. The project will create job opportunities for the locals.
Training might be required to help the locals understand the project. This will be a chance to boost education in the area as well. Therefore, Darwin could be a strategic area to put up the hybrid renewable system considering the social factors that are in place.
These are factors that have an effect or an influence on the economy of the region or society in question. At the current state, economic growth in Australia and New Zealand is said to have slowed down as a result of a number of factors, including the global financial crisis. This is a factor that could affect the development of a hybrid renewable system in the area. Availability of funds could be affected by the poor economic growth rate.
However, this project is expected to receive support from the central government, the local government, as well as various industries that are likely to benefit from this source of energy (Rolland & Glania, 2011). It is important to note that campaigns focusing on environmental issues have been ongoing in Australia and New Zealand, thus most industries are cautious of activities that are likely to increase emission of greenhouse gases.
As a result, it is expected that most of the industries will support the project. Once implemented, the hybrid renewable system will improve the economic status of the two countries, Australia and New Zealand. In addition, the economic status of the city will be boosted by this development. Prospective economic gains are, therefore, likely to improve the chances of this project succeeding (Abdelhamid, Bahmed & Benoudjit, 2012).
The initial costs that are likely to be incurred in the development of this project will be high. There will be a need for large solar panels, turbines, as well as equipment that will be used to launch the turbines (Abdelhamid, beamed & Benoudjit, 2012). In addition, there could be other structures to elevate the solar panels from the ground in order to increase its efficiency.
According to the environment of the region and the energy requirements, the most effective topology could be the ring topology. This has the ability to generate electricity in all directions and reach more people within a relatively short time and low cost.
A ring topology might require a large number of solar panels and wind turbines and could be expensive initially. However, this would be the cheapest and most effective topology in the long run.
These are factors that relate to adherence of the laws and regulation. They may also refer to the political factors that are likely to affect or influence the development of this project. The government of Australia and the government of New Zealand have for the last two to three decades been advocating for the development of energy sources that will reduce environmental pollution (Andrew, 2011).
The energy sector in these two countries has continually gained momentum via numerous government debates that are focused on developing and implementing technologies that will reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (Da, 2013). Darwins legal system has to be in line with that of the central government.
The local authorities in the Darwin provide every necessary support for the project to succeed given the benefits the city is going to reap if the project goes through. The efforts by the government are said to target the improvement of climate in the region.
The climate in the region has deteriorated as a result of global warming. The government also aims at reducing the escalating prices of energy sources, such as petrol, that have led to high costs of living, as well as tackling the issue of diminishing resources. With this support from the government, the legal factors are favourable for the development of the project. The project is, therefore, likely to succeed.
Forecasting of the available resources for the selected location
As technology continues to develop across the world, there is a possibility of technology variation in various sectors (Rolland & Glania, 2011). The energy sector is also likely to be affected by these variations. However, solar energy generation and wind energy production are not likely to experience a lot of technology variations.
For instance, there could be changes in the grid connection to a standalone battery charging system in the case of wind energy. On the other hand, solar energy could change from solar panels to photovoltaic systems. The wind and solar energy were opted for since Darwin is an area with plenty of sun and wind, thus the two forms of energy are the most appropriate for the area.
The current implementation method will be a parallel method. The new project will be implemented, but it will run alongside the old system. This will be important in that it will reduce any likely risk of failure in the new system (Gavasci & Zandaryaa, 2012). In addition, it will of electricity to citizens while a new system is in the process of installation.
The implementation process will be divided into phases. Each phase will be completed within a predetermined period of time. The initial phase will involve preparing the site where the project will be implemented. Construction of necessary structures will be carried out once the site is ready. These structures include structures needed for lifting the solar panels from the ground.