Nursing Telephone Education and Intervention

The comprehensive care of patients involves the use of all methods that may aid in their successful management. The contact between health professionals and the patient constitutes the main intervention in the management of patients. However, this strategy is not enough to take care of patients based on the need for continuous support and follow-up that patients require. Some methods that have been successfully utilised in the management of patients in the primary care centres encompass the use of social work where trained individuals take care of the patients needs and continue with management. The telephone is a useful tool in the management of patients. It allows the primary caregivers to provide some form of education and counselling to patients at the convenience of their homes or offices.

The use of the telephone for communication between healthcare providers and patients has led to the emergence of telephone education. Telephone education is a form of tutoring in which the health practitioners give health information to patients. The clients use such information in the management or prevention of their illness. The exercise of telephone education is mainly in the follow-up of patients where the caregivers advise patients on how to use their medication, recognise the danger signs of the conditions they are suffering from, and what to do when they experience something abnormal. In addition, nursing telephone education is useful in the prevention, management, and follow-up of patients in the healthcare system. Many investigations have studied the utility of telephone education in the prevention and care of a variety of conditions.

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Telephone education is not a widely applied concept. Hence, few institutions employ it because of the large numbers of patients and inadequate resources that limit its usage in those institutions. Therefore, most of the institutions that use telephone education are private. The research paper seeks to examine the benefits of applying telephone education in the management and follow-up of patients by using telephone education or a telephone intervention for the health needs of clients and/or their families.

Zhang, Wong, You, and Zheng (2012) did the first research whose findings are summarised. It was entitled A qualitative Study exploring the Nurse Telephone follow-up of Patients returning Home with a Colostomy. In this research, the authors sought to establish the constituents of mobile involvement by an enterostomal caregiver to the colostomy-ailing people who had been released from the hospital (Zhang, et al., 2012). The researchers recognise the presence of a stoma in patients as a distressing thing. Most of the patients who have permanent stoma usually require a long period of counselling. Zhang, et al. (2012) conducted research in China in one of the . There was no research that had been conducted in the area, and hence the need for this research.

The researchers noted that although there were many researches on the management of atoms, there were few, which attempted to investigate the follow-up of patients using telephone intervention. Through qualitative analysis of the content of conducted 25 telephones intervention interviews, the researchers found that there were five themes in the conversations (Zhang, et al., 2012, p. 1407). The themes include the education on atoms care, encouragement for atoms self-care, where to access atoms care, postoperative problems, and resumption to normal living (Zhang, et al., 2012, p. 1408). In the research, the findings allow the conclusion that the use of telephone education is crucial to the management of patients with permanent atoms (Zhang, et al., 2012). The study uses effective methods to evaluate the custom of telephone education for the colostomy patients. In my opinion, the judgments will be very useful to the nursing practice.

In the second research by Swreczek, Banistre, Bloombreg, Bruns, Epstein, Highstein, and Garbutt (2013), the researchers examined the use of telephone coaching interventions to improve the self-management behaviours of asthmatic patients. According to Swreczek et al. (2013), the purpose of the study was to establish the effectiveness of a telephone intervention in the treatment of asthmatic patients. In the research, some nurses assumed the role of coaches where they were to make calls that were educative to asthmatic patients based on the established guidelines (Swreczek et al., 2013). The coaches contacted 164 parents who had asthmatic children to participate in the study.127 of these children responded and participated in the study (Swreczek et al., 2013). The coaches provided education to the parents and their asthmatic children on the condition and the available care.

They also used the telephone coaching intervention by targeting the four main asthma care behaviours based on the NAEPP guidelines (Swreczek et al., 2013). The parents were required to , make an updated asthma action plan, utilise rescue medications, and establish a partnership between themselves, the child, and the paediatrician with regular visits to these caregivers (Swreczek et al., 2013). The study allowed the nurses trained to be coaches to work from their home or health institutions. Besides, to cater for their needs and interventions, the researcher gave the coaches some remuneration. The research assessed the results of the interventions in the parents and their children. The outcome indicates a remarkable improvement in the management of asthma in patients who were enrolled in the programme, with fewer reported cases of asthmatic attacks since those that occurred were well managed (Swreczek et al., 2013). In addition, the research findings designate that nurses telephone coaching interventions as beneficial and effective in support of and education of patients who are under their care. In my opinion, the methodology used was adequate for the conclusions.

In the third study by Hrdam, Sabroe, Pedresen, Mejdahl, and Sballe (2010), the researchers carried out a randomised control study that had the hypothesis of improvement of patients who had received total hip replacement and were receiving telephone support and counselling. The researchers identified that the presence of hip problems after surgery for hip replacement was prevalent. As such, the hip problem patients spent relatively more time in the health institutions. In this randomised control research, patients above 65 years and with hip replacement received either conventional care or telephone support and counselling (Hrdam et al., 2010). The study used a sample size of the 180 patients, which the researcher categorised into two groups. According to Hrdam et al. (2010), the study compared the two categories based on the instituted intervention. The participants were required to undergo follow-up after the hip replacement to guarantee the development of few or no complications. The researchers divided the participants into two groups. After surgery, the researchers followed on the first group with telephone conversations at the end of week 2 and week 10.

The study followed up the other group conventionally and analysed the results of the follow-up to examine if there was any difference between the two groups. According to Hrdam et al. (2010), the patients that the study interviewed at 2 and 10 weeks via the telephone reached their average habitual levels at 3 months while their counterparts on conventional management reached the same level at 9 months. The implication of the report is that the group that received follow-up via telephone interviewing had better performance compared to the group with conventional management and follow-up (Hrdam et al., 2010). Therefore, the researchers managed to show that the use of telephone intervention and counselling post operatively has added benefits to patients (Hrdam et al., 2010). The study demonstrated the use of telephone education in the management and follow-up of patients. It was a useful one.

The last research that was reviewed is the one by Jensen, Leeman-Castillo, Coronel, Prery, Belz, Kapral, and Krantz (2009). In Jensens et al. (2009) study, the authors sought to establish the impact of telephone follow-up intervention on participants of a health fair on high cardiovascular risk. The researchers observed many participants in one of the health fairs conducted annually. Some of these people were with high risks for cardiovascular problems as assessed by the kiosks that they set up in the fair (Jensen et al., 2009). The researchers communicated to the participants of the fair that were at a high risk of cardiovascular problems after a month and told them to visit a caregiver if they had not done it (Jensen et al., 2009). The study sought to engage the high-risk individuals again after three months by employing the same questions that were previously used. According to Jensen et al. (2009), the study considered 447 participants as cohort size and followed-up the participants through the telephone conversations. The research proposed the use of telephone conversations to mitigate the risk of cardiovascular conditions.

Although it involved many participants, the study reported positive results from this intervention. More than a half of the people that were engaged through the telephone intervention saw a health provider with a sizeable number having pending appointments (Jensen et al., 2009). In conclusion, the researchers realised that the use of telephone intervention was a good way of preventing the complication of diseases through creating awareness and allowing early screening. Moreover, the research provides evidence that the use of telephone education is beneficial in the prevention of cardiovascular conditions besides those whom the practitioners diagnosed as high-risk individuals. In my view, the study is appealing. If the researchers apply the measures correctly, they can screen and prevent many cases of medical conditions that are easily controlled. The research methodology was also accurate. It provides a chance for future researchers to explore the use of the same interventions.

Summary of Findings
In summary, these research articles provide evidence of the use of telephone education in the management and follow-up of patients. The four articles found that there is effective management of patients using telephone education. Most of them apply follow-up methods. According to Zhang et al. (2012, p. 1408) research, the proponents recognise the feature of following up patients with permanent atoms as an important cause of morbidity in cancer patients. The patients usually require counselling in the process of rehabilitation besides maximum input from both the family and the caregiver. The use of telephone education, as portrayed in the research, presents a feasible way of reducing the psychological stress associated with such conditions (Zhang et al., 2012, p. 1408).

Comparatively, Swreczek et al. (2013) present the use of telephone education for the management of chronic conversations as the most probable. In their research, they confirmed that the utilisation of telephone education could effectively manage asthma, which is one of the chronic conditions (Swreczek et al., 2013). The management of elderly persons is also effective if the healthcare givers use telephone education to treat the elderly individuals. If efficiently utilised, Hrdam et al. (2010) assert that telephone education and follow-up can lead to a faster recovery of patients who undergo important procedures such as hip replacement. According to Jensen et al. (2009), the researchers not only observed that the control of pain in individuals is more effective if the telephone education is applied but also showed that the method can be useful in the follow-up of patients and/or in the prevention of other conditions. The study by Jensen et al. (2009) accurately facilitated the screening of the high-risk group for cardiovascular disease individuals. The four research articles present an accurate and successful method of screening management and follow-up of patients using telephone education.

Usefulness to Nurses
The telephone interventions that the study highlights are useful to nurses in a number of ways. The modern-day nurse has to manage a large group of patients with different conditions. Some of the conditions require few follow-ups while others for successful management. The utilisation of telephone education can relatively reduce the number of visits that a nurse gets from patients that are on follow-up. However, the management must effectively apply the scheme to get better results. The research indicated a more rapid improvement for patients who received the telephone education and those who caregivers followed up. Notwithstanding, the nurses achieved faster recovery for patients through the method.

The fact that the management of elderly patients and patients with chronic conditions requires a focused approach often overwhelms nurses because of the frequent visits that they get from these patients. To reduce the challenge, the application of telephone education is inevitable. According to Hrdam et al. (2010), the reason for the application of telephone education is that it produces better results compared to the conventional methods. Since nurses play the role of frequently educating patients about their health, they have traditionally focused on conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, and asthma together with how to present them. The use of telephone education according to the four articles reviewed above is an effective method of conducting education practices (Jensen et al., 2009). If nurses were to use this method in the education of patients, they would receive the same results as obtained in the studies.

Another way in which the studies are important to nursing practice is the provision of feasible ways of screening for conditions in the public. In Hrdam et al. (2010) study review, the authors managed to screen the participants of a fair for cardiovascular risk. This strategy proves that it is possible to screen conditions in the public and encourage them to visit a healthcare provider using telephone education. Therefore, the application of phone education is likely to lead to earlier detection of conditions before they advance. This method can lead to nurses preventing many chronic conditions. The early management of the conditions also leads to fewer complications and less strenuous work for the nursing staff.

The studies also imply that many institutions should adopt the use of telephone education. Nurses are the main caregivers that will be required to use it. The introduction of the use of telephone education requires not only the training of nurses on its application but also the training of most of the caregivers on the basic methods of telephone education and the required operating principles. Telephone education is a useful method. More nurses will have to spend more in upgrading their qualifications so that they are able to offer this form of care. The introduction of telephone education as a new form of management can also lead to the development of a new subspecialty in nursing, with individuals working from their offices and homes.

The studies highlighted in this paper provide a method that nurses can apply to improve the care of their patients while involving family members in the care of patients. In many occasions, the situation forces nurses to manage the patients without any participation from the families. The introduction of telephone education means that the patients relatives and family will be more available to their care. Zhang et al. (2012) state that families were able to participate more in the care of their relatives if they got telephone education on the condition, prevention of complications, dealing with the psychological problems, and other issues associated with the condition. Consequently, the studies are valuable to learning and practice of nursing.

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