Post Mastectomy Nursing Care Practices Essay

Cancer has become one of the major concerns of the modern world. Statistics show that in 2016, an estimated 1,685,210 new cases of cancer will be diagnosed in the United States and 595,690 people will die from the disease (Cancer Statistics, n.d., para. 1). The scale of the challenge is so significant that the numerous practices and medicines created to treat cancer and protect a patient could be taken as the logic result of the development of the problem. Besides, breast cancer is one of the most common forms of the illness (Cancer Statistics, n.d). Mostly, it threatens the life of women and results in the significant deterioration of the health of the nation. For this reason, there are numerous practices used to treat patients suffering from the disease and guarantee them a productive life. Mastectomy also belongs to these practices. It implies the partial or complete removal of one or two breasts to delete the tumor and guarantee a patients recovery. However, it could also be used as the preventive measure for people with the high risk of breast cancer. Nowadays, mastectomy remains the most efficient local therapy used to prevent the further development of the disease and promote a patients recovery (Cancer Statistics, n.d). Therefore, there are numerous concerns related to the issue. These are the ethical side of the practice, pharmacological therapy to support a patient, nursing care, etc.

According to the latest surveys, on 1,216,820 women with primary breast cancer, 35.5% had mastectomy while the rest of respondents preferred breast conservation surgery (Davenport, 2014). However, it is vital to admit the tendency towards the increase of the number of patients preferring to undergo mastectomy to get rid of the disease and guarantee the complete recovery. The general number of people preferring mastectomy increased from 34,3% to 37,8% (Davenport, 2014). Surprisingly, younger women prefer to choose the practice regardless of the tumor size while the older ones consider the recommendation of their therapists related to the tumor (Satinder & Hemant, 2015). The increase of the number of people undergoing mastectomy could also be explained by the development of the breast reconstructive surgery. The majority of women who had the mastectomy are able to rebuild the breast mound and the nipple (What is breast reconstruction? n.d). It helps to get rid of the aesthetic defects of the surgery and contributes to the faster psychological recovery.

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At the current stage of its development, mastectomy implies several important aspects, such as the type of the surgery, its main peculiarities, principles, approaches, and postmastectomy recovery. The type of the surgery is chosen in accordance with the peculiarities of the tumor, breast size, and the chance of the recurrence. Simple mastectomy implicates the removal of the entire breast with the preservation of the axillary contents. (Cho et al., 2013). It is the most for patients with the comparatively small sizes of the tumor. Usually, they can go home after a brief stay at the hospital. This form of surgery is opposed to the radical mastectomy that involves the removal of the entire breast, major and minor muscles, and axillary lymph nodes (Cho et al., 2013). It is recommended for patients suffering from breast cancer which afflicted the chest muscles (Cho et al., 2013). The given surgery leaves no chance to tumors to survive. Finally, the prophylactic mastectomy could be taken as one of the most prominent modern tendencies in the given sphere. It is considered as the preventive measure used by patients belonging to the risk group. In this case, only the tissues that could trigger the development of breast cancer are removed (Cho et al., 2013).

Despite the high efficiency of mastectomy and the low relapse rates, patients could also use numerous pharmacological and complementary therapies. The usage of these practices is determined by various factors. The major one is the comparatively small size of the tumor and the absence of the direct threat to the life of a patient. Under these conditions, chemotherapy, immunotherapy or hormone therapy could be recommended. A patient may also undergo radiation exposure to impact the tumor. The the usage of the traditional medicines and practices to guarantee recovery, destroy the cancer cells, and stop the development of the tumor (Singh & Chaturvedi, 2015). It is the which efficiency is evidenced by numerous cases of recovery. Analyzing the complementary therapy, one could admit the lack of the investigations of the real impact it has on the breast cancer. However, the usage of homeopathy, traditional Eastern medicines, etc. might also have the positive effect (Singh & Chaturvedi, 2015).

Therefore, patients who undergo mastectomy should obviously be provided with the professional nursing care to mitigate the effects of the surgery and promote faster recovery. There are several major concerns related to it. First, a nurse should be focused on the emotional support to a patient to guarantee the improvement of her/his state and stable adjustment to the new conditions (Weaver, 2009). Patients might face a number of problems related to the psychological aspect of the surgery. For this reason, a nurse should be able to provide the psychological aid to support them. Women should be shown their perspectives and offered the opportunity to discuss the further steps, like the breast reconstructive surgery, with the qualified nurse (Weaver, 2009). Additionally, it is vital to educate patients and provide them with the after surgery instructions. That is why a nurse should be able to explain these instructions to avoid complications and guaranty the fast recovery process.

Analyzing the question of mastectomy, one should also admit the great psychological challenge women face while discovering breast cancer. The nature of the disease impacts the core of the woman identity and the traditional feminine role. Breast is the main symbol of maternity, and the threat of its removal can have a on the psyche of a woman and her consciousness. The problem is especially topical for as it could be taken as the threat to their possibility to have children. The given facts give rise to the necessity of the creation of programs aimed at the promotion of breast cancer awareness. The change of the attitude towards women suffering from breast cancer should become one of the main peculiarities of the culture to create the beneficial society.

To summarize, mastectomy is one of the modern practices used to treat breast cancer and guarantee survival of a patient. It implies the partial or total removal of a breast to stop the development of the tumor. Despite its great efficiency, there are still numerous concerns related to the issue. That is why it is crucial to continue the investigation of the disease and increase breast cancer awareness.

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