The Innovative Wood Technology of Cross-Laminated Timber Annotated

The changing face of urban sustainable living: the innovative wood technology of (CLT)
(CTL) has become a popular, greener alternative to well established steel and concrete for structural construction. CTL represents a technical, cost-effective and contemporary timber product for building structures. Nevertheless, it is imperative to understand various characteristics such as mechanical properties, fire behaviours, use of technologies, designs and structural connections of CTL.

Key words: cross laminated timber, mechanical properties, technology, performance, behaviours

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Reference Key themes and contributions Relevance to research topic
Frangi, A, Fontana, M, Knobloch, M & Bochicchio, G 2008, Fire behaviour of cross-laminated solid timber panels, Fire Safety Science, vol. 9, pp. 1279-1290.
The fire behaviour of CTL panels
A comparison of CTL and standardized timber panels on their fire behaviours
The rate of charring
The article shows that fire behaviours of CLT panels are influenced by observed behaviours of each layer of CTL.
The width and amount of panel layers influence fire behaviours of CTL.
CTL panels for wall have superior fire behaviours relative to slab panels

Fire is a common accident and thus engineers and firefighters must understand behaviours of materials used for construction
Hindman, DP & Bouldin, JC 2014, Mechanical Properties of Southern Pine Cross-Laminated Timber, Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering.
Mechanical properties of specific timber (Southern pine)
Potential replacement for steel and concrete
Resistance to seismic and delamination
The article shows that CTL products require tests to ascertain their mechanical properties against the recommended standards. Moreover, it is imperative to understand factors that influence such properties.
CTL products require enhanced assessment for moisture contents.

CTL products should be tested for their mechanical properties (the bending, stiffness and shear properties of CLT) to guarantee their resistance to seismic activities and delamination
Kramer, A, Barbosa, AR & Sinha, A 2014, Viability of Hybrid Poplar in ANSI Approved Cross-Laminated Timber Applications, Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, vol. 26, no. 7.
Use of not traditionally used for construction
The CLT technology for tall timber building construction
Determine shear and bending properties of low-density hardwood species
The study shows that CTL technology could ensure that low-density hardwood species are made to meet specified standards for CTL construction

A widespread acceptance of CTL has led to the introduction of low-density hardwood species not traditionally used for construction and not found in the approved list and thus developers must evaluate their products for approval status
Oh, J-K, Lee, J-J & Hong, J-P 2015, Prediction of compressive strength of cross-laminated timber panel, Journal of Wood Science,vol. 61, no. 1, pp. 28-34.
Compressive strength properties
An experimental evaluation of properties could be expensive and time-consuming
Lamina property-based models for predicting the compressive strength of CLT panel are required
Given the complex processes of manufacturing CTL panels, it would be expensive and time-consuming to use experimental strategies to evaluate their mechanical properties. Hence, it is imperative to develop lamina property-based models to predict mechanical properties of CTL panels.

Models for predicting mechanical properties of CTL products are required to save time and costs
Van De Kuilen, J, Ceccotti, A, Xia, Z & He, M 2011, Very Tall Wooden Buildings with Cross Laminated Timber, Procedia Engineering, vol. 14, pp. 16211628.
CTL for multi-storey buildings
New possibilities for CTL with concrete core and structural outriggers
It has been determined that CTL panels function well and are extremely efficient for multi-storey buildings up to 10 storeys.
The article shows that concrete core and structural outriggers provides new opportunities for CTL to be used for very high buildings

Developers have continued to explore new possibilities with CTL and thus understanding how they can function with other materials in very high buildings is important
Vessby, J, Enquist, B, Petersson, H & Alsmarker, T 2009, Experimental study of cross-laminated timber wall panels, European Journal of Wood and Wood Products, vol. 67, no. 2, pp. 211-218.
CTL panel layers differ in number (three and over)
Structural performance of CTL with different layers
Influences of connecting methods
CTL layers require tests to determine their strength and stiffness because these properties influence performance. Moreover, CTL panels can perform better when connected effectively to each other.


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