The main goal of this paper is to discuss the problems of environmental ethics
Environmental ethics are principles that describe relationships between people and nature. Although many specialists developed theories regarding this issue throughout history, this subject received particular attention in the mid-twentieth century. It was caused by the negative effect of new technologies and globalization on the environment. However, there are different points of view on this matter. The main goal of this paper is to discuss the problems of environmental ethics, of this multisided issue.
There are various opinions about what should be considered to be valuable in terms of environmental ethics. Judaism highlights the importance of maintaining the proper balance which God has built into this world. (Freundel, n.d., para. 18). This religion prohibits any destruction and promotes the environmental quality of life. However, Christians separate humanity from the planet and neglect their inherent holiness (Dobel, 1977). They undermine peoples superiority over the earth and thus permit the exploitation of nature. According to Nash, the main problem of environmental ethics is that different communities benefit from the denial of values of each other (Nash, 1989). Therefore, it always leads to conflicts of interest.
Therefore, Jewish and Christian philosophies are deeply rooted in environmental ethics. Problems related to ecology cause many debates among these communities. When this issue got great attention in the 1960, numerous specialists published articles about environmental problems that were based on Biblical and Rabbinic works. One of the most controversial topics was wartime as it is always a period of great need and destruction. This problem was discussed in that promoted the idea that destruction is certainly prohibited for anyone (Freundel, n.d., para. 3). Traditionally, the Judaical religion was very strict regarding the importance of nature. However, the Bible offers another concept that is more lenient. The Christian scriptures forbid to destroy, without purpose, any object from which someone might derive pleasure (Freundel, n.d., para. 2). Therefore, the idea of the domination of people over nature stems from Christianity.
Another with environmental ethics is the distribution of responsibilities for . Various ecologists raise the question of whether countries that produce greenhouse gas emissions have to compensate other countries on which they have a negative impact (Palmer, 2004). In fact, responsibilities for climate change rest on the shoulders of many countries. However, some contribute much more than others. However, there is no strong legal foundation that allows punishing anyone who violates the principles of ecology. Historical responsibilities are often used to justify such violations (Shue, 1999). Environmental restrictions that are imposed on industries that produce highly dangerous emissions hinder their development. It is necessary to achieve equal distribution of costs for protecting the environment as it has a direct impact on climate change (Torralba, Seguro, & Thomas, 2014). There is a negative correlation between the quality of the environment and income inequality. Wealthy countries bear a heavier burden as they have to contribute much more to restore ecological balance than less prosperous countries. Therefore, it is necessary to reduce such inequalities to achieve environmental stability.
Environmental ethics cover various aspects related to international ecological problems. There are several serious questions on which different countries and communities cannot reach an agreement. Such contradictions are deeply rooted in historical and cultural backgrounds. Therefore, it is highly necessary to conduct analytical research aimed at resolving controversy and maintaining environmental safety.