The Stages of Succession at Different Places in the Kilmer Ecological

A virtual trip to a portion of the Kilmer Ecological Preserve was undertaken to identify the stages of secondary succession at eighteen selected areas. After observing various plant species present at each area, it was noticed that different stages of succession existed at different places depending on several influencing and interrelated factors.

A virtual tour to the Kilmer Ecological Preserve. The tour started from the bus stop in front of Beck Hall. The trip covered 18 stations, including undisturbed forest, and abandoned farmlands that were used till 1920s and 1930s. The objective was to identify the stage of succession at each station depending on the plant species present in that area.

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
The Stages of Succession at Different Places in the Kilmer Ecological
Just from $13/Page
Order Essay

The existence of plant life in an area starts with the emergence of annuals and biennials, followed in succession by perennial herbs, shrubs and trees. Herbs are characteristic of early stage of succession; shrubs for later succession and finally trees are seen in mature/climax community. Although it is supposed to follow a schematic pattern, various disturbances and other influencing factors result in overlapping of and, in turn, alterations in these growth patterns. Hence, various areas with different backgrounds were selected in the Kilmer Ecological Preserve, to observe the kinds of plant species present and their growth forms; thereby, to identify the stage of succession in each area. The succession in these areas is called secondary succession as it occurs in previously colonized areas.

Results and Conclusion- The parts of the Preserve that were disturbed due to farming, wartime camp or fire showed initial stages of succession containing mainly perennial herbs and shrubs. The relatively undisturbed forest areas like the pre-1840 region showed well-grown trees symbolizing a climax community. Station no. 17, at the junction of the forest and the lawn, indicated the difference in succession between disturbed and undisturbed areas. The forest side showed the canopy, sub canopy and herbaceous zones, whereas the lawn side had only grass varieties that represent early succession. The following table gives a detailed description of the stage of succession and the kinds of plant species present at each station.

Stage number and description
Stage of succession

Species present

1. Powerline cut Earliest stage of succession containing pioneer species Annual herbs: foxtail grass, ragweed, and peppergrass. Perennial species: milkweed, common cinquefoil, plantain and strawberry.
2. 1929 field, beyond the rusted out Volkswagen Advanced stage with perennials and shrubs Goldenrod (perennial herb), little bluestem (perennial grass), sumac and maple (shrubs).
3. Open area in 1929 field Earlier stage surrounded by shrubs and treeshm Perennial grass: little bluestem.
Shrubs and trees: red maple, sumac and pin oak.
Poison ivy spreading on the ground.
4. Between the 1920 old field and the 1929 old field (mixed stand of birch, maple, pin oak) Later stage (young woodlands) Tree varieties: pin oak, maple and birch.
Shaded out earlier stage shrubs.
Poison ivy in shrub form.
5. Maple grove Beech-maple forest Maples
6. Clearing with apple tree Pioneer species Stilt grass, goldenrod, Queen Annes Lace.
6. Woody species at the clearing with the apple tree Birch-cherry forest Small cherry trees.
Japanese honeysuckle.
7. Multiflora rose, pin oak and mosses Earlier stage with old woodland on right side Multiflora rose, mosses, pin oak
8. Winged euonymous along path Various shrubs Winged euonymous, cedar.
9. Dogwoods and sumac, part of the 1930 field Later stage with perennials and shrubs Cedar, dogwood, sumac, Japanese honeysuckle, mosses and aspens
10. 1930 old-field, aspens and field-forest edge Emergent grass and shrubs Pioneer species: plantain, strawberry, cinquefoil and little bluestem.
Later shrubs: bayberry, sumac and cedar.
11. Pine grove Mature pine forest Old pine trees.
12. Forest with standing dead trees Oak-hickory forest Hickories, cedars, ash and dogwood.
13. Buell Brook Open water with pioneer organisms Snails, crayfish, insect larvae.
Trout lilies along the brook.
14. Pre-1840 forest, leftside of the T path beyond Buell Brook Climax community Canopy trees: oaks.
Understory and shrub layer: maple-leaf viburnum, flowering dogwood.
Herbs like mayapple, spring beauty and trout lily.
15. Spring ephimerals and poison ivy vines Perennials and shrubs Herbs: mayapple, spring beauty and trout lily.
Poison ivy vines.
16. Cherry and spice bush Birch-cherry forest Spicebush, .
17. Lawn and of climax community (forest) and early stage (lawn) Canopy, understory, shrub and herb layers on the forest side.
Dandelions on the lawn.
18. Origin of the parking lot No flora No plants except few algae.
The areas where the natural forest environment was disturbed by one or the other reasons, showed mostly perennials and shrubs. Large trees along with shade tolerate shrubs dominated the areas of the deep forest. The trails and roadsides mostly had perennial grass and herbs as they were capable of growing rapidly in open spaces, while withstanding sunlight. Areas of deep and relatively undisturbed forest showed few herbs as they couldnt grow under the shade of large trees and shrubs.

While there were no noticeable species at the origin of to its oily and warm water, some snails and crayfishes were found in its shallow stream deep in the forest. Some trout lilies were noticed growing along the bank in the forest.

All in all, it was evident that the range of plant species in all the areas covered varied greatly depending on various influences. The normal pattern of ecological succession is prone to natural and man made disturbances. Hence, an overlapping of plant forms that is unlikely for a standard succession is inevitable.


Calculate the price
Make an order in advance and get the best price
Pages (550 words)
*Price with a welcome 15% discount applied.
Pro tip: If you want to save more money and pay the lowest price, you need to set a more extended deadline.
We know how difficult it is to be a student these days. That's why our prices are one of the most affordable on the market, and there are no hidden fees.

Instead, we offer bonuses, discounts, and free services to make your experience outstanding.
How it works
Receive a 100% original paper that will pass Turnitin from a top essay writing service
step 1
Upload your instructions
Fill out the order form and provide paper details. You can even attach screenshots or add additional instructions later. If something is not clear or missing, the writer will contact you for clarification.
Pro service tips
How to get the most out of your experience with Essay Help Republic
One writer throughout the entire course
If you like the writer, you can hire them again. Just copy & paste their ID on the order form ("Preferred Writer's ID" field). This way, your vocabulary will be uniform, and the writer will be aware of your needs.
The same paper from different writers
You can order essay or any other work from two different writers to choose the best one or give another version to a friend. This can be done through the add-on "Same paper from another writer."
Copy of sources used by the writer
Our college essay writers work with ScienceDirect and other databases. They can send you articles or materials used in PDF or through screenshots. Just tick the "Copy of sources" field on the order form.
See why 20k+ students have chosen us as their sole writing assistance provider
Check out the latest reviews and opinions submitted by real customers worldwide and make an informed decision.
Classic English Literature
Awesome Work. Highly recommend the writer
Customer 452461, November 21st, 2022
Classic English Literature
awesome research and organization
Customer 452451, May 26th, 2022
Classic English Literature
no errors and top-notch grammar
Customer 452451, May 26th, 2022
on time and very legit!
Customer 452447, May 18th, 2022
Nice job!
Customer 452459, September 27th, 2022
i love every detail of the paper. am sure i'll get an A+
Customer 452459, September 27th, 2022
Customer reviews in total
Current satisfaction rate
3 pages
Average paper length
Customers referred by a friend
15% OFF your first order
Use a coupon FIRST15 and enjoy expert help with any task at the most affordable price.
Claim my 15% OFF Order in Chat
error: Content is protected !!
Open chat
Need assignment help? You can contact our live agent via WhatsApp using +1 718 717 2861

Feel free to ask questions, clarifications, or discounts available when placing an order.